The ORB

 

Career Planning

What makes a career amazing? Is it the amount of money you make? Stability? Prestige? The actual job duties? The required training (or lack of it)? The teamwork? The independent work? The way it utilizes your skills? The answer is yes! And no! All these things could make a career amazing but not all of them do ... at least not for everyone. Another person's idea of an amazing career won't necessarily be yours.You should know that there's an amazing career for everyone.

So you think you know yourself really well. Well, then, what is your personality type? What are your work-related values? What are your interests? Do you have any aptitudes? Huh? Why does any of this even matter? It matters because in order to find an amazing career, you need to know the answers to these questions. If you don't, it will be hard to discover whether a career is a good fit for you. If it isn't a good fit for you, it won't be amazing at all.

Instead you will find going to work every day a burden. The best way to learn all about yourself is by doing a thorough self assessment. It is important to note that you must consider not just one aspect of a self assessment—personality, interests, values OR aptitude—but instead all of them together. Just because a career might be suitable for someone with your personality, it doesn't mean it correlates with your values, for example.

 

If you are wondering if it's possible to find an amazing career without doing a formal self-assessment, it is. You do have to know quite a bit about yourself, though, and what you do and don't want in a career and what you will and won't like about it. Many people have picked careers they love and have done so in a very unscientific way. For example, they hear about an occupation from someone they know or read about one.

 

One thing everyone needs to do no matter how they come upon a career is to gather information about it.

Career Exploration

AoPE Level 3

This unit provides an opportunity for candidates to explore a range of career opportunities and to plan how to develop the skills and knowledge they need to pursue their career goals successfully. Candidates will research, analyse and evaluate information about career opportunities that interest them. They should consider opportunities across different sectors/settings (e.g. retail, health and social care, education, management, ICT, customer care) and then identify a particular career to explore further. Based on this exploration, a candidate should be able to develop a career plan which accurately reflects their skills, interests and aspirations. Learners need to have an understanding of how a career plan can help an individual make progress towards achieving their career goals.

Having identified at least two occupational sectors relevant to their career interests, candidates must research information about opportunities within those sectors. The candidate must identify at least three different sources of information (e.g. websites, books, journals, careers advisers, HR managers) and decide what criteria to use to judge the quality and relevance of the different sources. For example, their judgments might be based on the type of information, its level of detail, how current it is, the specialist level of knowledge of an individual adviser, any perceived bias, etc. Candidates must provide evidence of analysing information about at least two career options (e.g. to identify similarities and differences in terms of qualification requirements, opportunities for progression, income potential, job satisfaction, etc.). Candidates must be able to describe the opportunities that would result from choosing a specific career option (e.g. someone choosing to do a nursing degree would be able to select from a range of disciplines in which to specialise, there are opportunities to work overseas and in different areas of the UK). Candidates must be able to identify the benefits and disadvantages of the particular career pathway (e.g. nursing offers flexible working and personal satisfaction but disadvantages could include a stressful working environment and relatively poor pay).

This unit provides an opportunity for candidates to explore a range of career opportunities and to plan how to develop the skills and knowledge they need to pursue their career goals successfully. Candidates will research, analyse and evaluate information about career opportunities that interest them. They should consider opportunities across different sectors/settings (e.g. retail, health and social care, education, management, ICT, customer care) and then identify a particular career to explore further. Based on this exploration, a candidate should be able to develop a career plan which accurately reflects their skills, interests and aspirations. Learners need to have an understanding of how a career plan can help an individual make progress towards achieving their career goals.

 

 CE3.1 Having identified at least two occupational sectors relevant to their career interests, candidates must research information about opportunities within those sectors. The candidate must identify at least three different sources of information (e.g. websites, books, journals, careers advisers, HR managers) and decide what criteria to use to judge the quality and relevance of the different sources. For example, their judgments might be based on the type of information, its level of detail, how current it is, the specialist level of knowledge of an individual adviser, any perceived bias, etc. Candidates must provide evidence of analysing information about at least two career options (e.g. to identify similarities and differences in terms of qualification requirements, opportunities for progression, income potential, job satisfaction, etc.). Candidates must be able to describe the opportunities that would result from choosing a specific career option (e.g. someone choosing to do a nursing degree would be able to select from a range of disciplines in which to specialise, there are opportunities to work overseas and in different areas of the UK). Candidates must be able to identify the benefits and disadvantages of the particular career pathway (e.g. nursing offers flexible working and personal satisfaction but disadvantages could include a stressful working environment and relatively poor pay).

Task

  1. Identify two occupational sectors relevant to your interests.
  2. Identify two jobs and complete the form below

You will need:

  1. a) Four different sources of information clearly showing and identify where the source has come from (e.g websites, books journal, career advisers etc)

Download Form

 

Job Skills

Skills Heath Check

The Skills Health Check Tools are a set of online questionnaires with a report. They are designed to give you information about your skills, interests and motivations in the workplace. The tools help you to think about the kinds of jobs that might be best for you in future.

Register with the national careers service

register

Complete the following assessments on your personal skills:

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Plagiarism and Referencing

Plagiarism and Referencing

‘What is plagiarism?’

Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention.

Each of the 10 most common types of plagiarism are defined below. The types are ranked in order of severity of intent.

Each of the 10 most common types of plagiarism are defined below. The types are ranked in order of severity of intent.

  1. Clone-Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own
  2. CTRL-C-Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations
  3. Find – Replace-Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source
  4. Remix-Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together
  5. Recycle-Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation
  6. Hybrid-combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation
  7. Mashup-Mixes copied material from multiple sources
  8. 404 Error-Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources
  9. Aggregator-Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work
  10. Re-tweet-Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure

http://www.plagiarism.org/citing-sources/overview/

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Sports Pyschology

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Aggression

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What do I need to learn?

Definitions and types -  difference between aggression and assertion

1.Hostile aggression
2. Instrumental aggression
3. Relational aggression

Theories of aggression -

Instinct theory

Frustration-aggression hypothesis,

Social learning theory and aggressive cue theory strategies to control aggression.

Watch the video and answer the questions:

1. What factors resulted in the incident occurring?

2. How would you advise the player in future to control his aggression, as a coach?

1. Why did the exchange of violence occur in your opinion?

2. Complete research on Bob Donewald Jr. How did he influence the situation before, during and after the violence?

Article to read for the lesson 'Aggression in Sport'

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Strategies to reduce Aggression: The Coach   

One key strategy is to punish aggressive players using penalties e.g. monetary fines or threatening their status as a starter or squad member in general. The reasoning for this is that Tenebaum et al (1997) suggests “aggression occurs in sport where the reward value outweighs punishment value” so to counteract this Tenebaum et al (1997) makes the recommendation that coaches should make fundamental penalty revisions so that rule-violating behaviour results in punishments that have greater punitive value than potential reinforcement.

Conroy et al. (2001) suggest, as the stakes of competition increase, players may perceive that the reinforcement and punishment structures within their sport are simultaneously changing to facilitate aggression. Duda, Olson, & Templin (1991) also stated that winning has become an essential part of sport, and increased professionalism breeds an atmosphere of “winning at all costs." The traditional causes of sport engagement, such as fun and fair play, appear to have decreased substantially. Research has shown that when athletes place a strong emphasis on beating others, they are more likely to endorse cheating and perceive intentionally injurious acts as more acceptable.

This is in line with a study by Visek and Watson (2005) who discovered in their investigation of ice hockey players that as they increased in age and competitive level, there was a correspondingly increasing trend in their perceived legitimacy of aggressive ice hockey behaviour and their attitudes about sport tended to become increasingly professionalized. So the longer a player remains in the sport and the more important the contest, the more professionalized he may become with an increased emphasis on winning at the cost of fairness, equity, and sports personship.

Another strategy a coach can use is positive reinforcement and reward for non-aggressive behaviour with athletes who show non aggressive behaviour being praised and publicised as good role models. According to Morra and Smith (1995), aggression in ice hockey can be traced to the National Hockey League (NHL). Recent headlines cite professional teams setting records for penalty minutes and extreme player aggression. If the NHL serves as the pinnacle of the sport, it is reasonable to expect that younger players may emulate the professionals. So if we highlight positive role models and reward these for their actions then young performers get a positive person to base their vicarious experiences on. A perfect role model to reinforce this is Gary Lineker who throughout his entire footballing career never received a yellow card.

Gary Lineker is a greater positive role model

Tenebaum et al (1997) suggests Coaches/managers should encourage athletes to engage in pro-social behaviour like visiting community projects and get the club and general media to help reinforce and highlight this positive message. This strategy is so important because as Cox (2007) maintains at the moment some of the most influential people in sport actually promote rather than discourage violence because it sells tickets. Strategies like this would allow the athletes to see the benefits of their positive work which would hopefully then encourage younger athletes and the general public to follow in the same actions.

Coaches also need strategies in place to prevent themselves turning to aggression. Recently the coach of Fiorentina attempted to attack one of his players, subsequently he has been sacked over the incident.

 BBC news page about the incident

Cox (2007) also suggested coaches who promote aggression should be fined or suspended and this is exactly what has happened to the NFL’s New Orleans Coaching staff who have received various suspensions without pay over their involvement in the Bounty programme

The punishments the Coaching staff & players involved in the bounty programme 

Strategies to reduce Aggression: The Athlete

A strategy that athletes themselves can implement is increased peer pressure. Individually and collectively they can encourage positive play and highlight responsibility to their team so discouraging aggressive play. This would encourage the team as a whole as they would observe a fellow respectable member acting in the correct way and it would also in turn make the athlete themself more aware of their behaviour.

Tenebaum et al (1997) suggests athletes should take part in programs aimed at helping them reduce behavioural tendencies toward aggression. The tightening of rules and imposing of harsher penalties is only part of the answer to inhibiting aggression in sport. Ultimately there needs to be a changing of reinforcement patterns and the athlete must assume responsibility for their behaviour.

 

Strategies to reduce Aggression: Both the Coach & Athlete and Conclusion

Strategies to reduce Aggression: Both the Coach & Athlete

 

A crucial strategy that both the coach and athlete can use is to decrease arousal by employing relaxation methods. The coach can teach or provide the opportunities to learn these techniques and the athlete can go away and implement these techniques into their lives. In terms of the athlete they can substitute negative thoughts with positive ones and break the habit of aggressive responses so when they start to feel angry they say “STOP!” (Woods, 2001). Finally they can use Somatic stress management techniques such as Self Talk and Deep Breathing or Cognitive methods like Imagery before the competition (Wiggins-James 2006).

 

Another approach is to reduce the importance of the event and winning by setting performance rather than outcome goals. In modern sport there is an over emphasis on winning which has increased aggressive tendencies. If there is a return to valuing fair play and emphasis on trying your hardest then aggression would decrease (see John Wooden, excellent coach on this philosophy). Outcome goals are those that judge an athlete against others and the end result e.g. whether they win or not, Performance goals are goals used by the athlete to judge their performance against their standards not against another competitor (Wiggins-James, 2006) e.g. whether they achieved an agreed number of passes. This strategy then allows the athlete to change the focus of attention away from winning which distracts them from the aggression stimuli which are increased by the pressure of outcome goals (Woods, 2001).

 

Conclusion

To conclude there are 3 main theories of aggression; Instinct, Frustration-aggression and Social Learning Theories with the later revised Frustration-aggression theory to Cue Arousal Theory. These all have extensive research as to why aggression occurs in sport however the Cue Arousal Theory is probably the most accurate as it combined both aspects of innate aggression and learnt aggression. Coaches and athletes need to recognise the distinction between aggressive behaviour and the more valued assertive behaviour. Finally all of the current research supports that aggression in sport always causes a negative correlation with performance so it is vital that any coach or athlete that wants to be successful follows the suggested strategies put forward within the relevant academia.

 

Aggression – A Level Physical Education





Strategy

Individuals

Coaches

Referees

Governing Bodies

Punish aggressive play Peer pressure to discourage aggression Substitute aggressive players Warn aggressive players/yellow card Ban aggressive players
Reinforce assertive play ‘Well done’ comments from team-mates Mention contribution of non-aggressive play in team talks Encourage assertive behaviour through rapport Promote fair play awards
Reduce levels of arousal Use of cognitive  arousal-reducing techniques Teach somatic arousal-reducing techniques Remove players from arousing situations and calm them down Educate players and coaches
Avoid aggressive situations Mark another player Play another team Send off aggressive players Ban aggressive players

Group dynamics in sport

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Group

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forming